Activity Dates: 10/06/2022 - 10/06/2025
If you are a pharmacist, nurse practitioner or other healthcare professional involved in the comprehensive medication management of psychiatric patients, we invite you to participate in this online course.
With more persons dying from opioid overdose than ever before, the vulnerability of HIV outbreaks requires innovative and multifaceted solutions to avert a new epidemic. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is one underused tool that can prevent new HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID). PrEP is a medication that can be taken daily to prevent HIV transmission and has been studied in a variety of vulnerable populations including PWID, men who have sex with men, and sex workers. According to a 2013 randomized placebo-controlled trial among PWID, PrEP was effective in preventing HIV for both male and female PWID (Choopanya et al., 2013). The CDC issued recommendations that persons who may be exposed to HIV (e.g., via shared injection equipment, unprotected sex) consider using PrEP for HIV prevention (CDC, 2021). Recently, the U.S. Preventative Services Task Force (Owens et al., 2019) issued a Grade A recommendation that clinicians offer PrEP to all individuals at high risk for HIV. Despite the CDC and United States Preventative Services Task Force recommendations, programs designed to increase PrEP use among PWID have not been broadly implemented. Given the lack of SSPs and routine HIV testing services, PrEP could carry significant HIV prevention utility for PWID.
Existing research on PrEP interest among PWID is limited. In Vancouver, a study found that increased risks for HIV acquisition among PWID was associated with greater willingness to use PrEP (Escudero et al., 2015). Relatedly, a study in New York City found that PWID were less likely to be aware of PrEP than groups with high sexual risks for HIV acquisition (Walters et al., 2017). A recent study of PWID in Baltimore found that PrEP awareness was low (24%) and interest was reasonably high (63%) once PrEP was described to participants (Sherman et al., 2019). This study also found that being eligible for PrEP, based on HIV risk behaviors, was associated with increased interest in PrEP. Overall, PrEP awareness is low among PWID, whereas interest varies. Research is needed to better understand PrEP awareness and interest among PWID and how interest may relate to HIV risk behaviors.
In 2012, PrEP was first approved by FDA, and in 2014, CDC published the first PrEP guidelines. Pharmacists can play a key role in supporting the national and international goals to end the HIV epidemic and increase PrEP use. It is unclear how many board-certified psychiatric pharmacists work to provide PrEP for PWID. In general, many practicing pharmacists have not received formal education in PrEP. A survey of community pharmacists found that almost 70% were not familiar with the guidelines, while another survey found that approximately 71% did not have sufficient knowledge to counsel on PrEP (Okura, et al., 2013 and Shaer et. Al, 2003). In a 2019 study, student pharmacists were unable to properly demonstrate knowledge of the guidelines by identifying that an HIV test is required for PrEP initiation. (Przybyla et al. 2019). Therefore, pharmacists, including psychiatric pharmacists, would benefit from receiving continuing education training in PrEP, including its pharmacology, potential drug interactions, and CDC guidelines.
To receive ACPE credit for this session, you must:
Upon successful completion, ACPE credit is reported within 24 hours to CPE Monitor although transcripts can be retrieved by participants online in their ACPE Transcript.
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Jacqueline Byrd, PharmD, BCPS, AAHIVPView biographical information and disclosures
The College of Psychiatric and Neurologic Pharmacists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education as a provider of continuing pharmacy education.
2022 Planning Committee
Ericka Crouse, PharmD, BCPP, BCGP, FASHP, FASCP
VCU School of Pharmacy
External Consultant Activities, Advisory Panels, Speakers Bureaus, etc.: ASHP - PAM Behavioral Health Committee (volunteer),
Editorial Board - The Medical Letter (paid), American Society of Consultant Pharmacists - speak at meetings/webinars on GeroPsych topics (paid),
Wolters-Kluwer, paid consultant
Cassandra Davis, PharmD, BCPP, BCPS
Mental Health Clinical Pharmacy Specialist
Orlando VA Medical Center
No Relevant Financial Relationships to Disclose
Megan J. Ehret, PharmD, BCPP, MS
BCPP Program Director
University of Maryland
External Consultant Activities, Advisory Panels, Speakers Bureaus, etc.: Psych U Section Advisor,
SMI Adviser; Pharmacist Consultant
Educational Grants, Research Grants or Contracts: FDA/University of Maryland CERSI, Maryland Behavioral Health Department, NIH
Sarah Melton, PharmD, BCPP, BCACP, FASCP
Professor of Pharmacy Practice
Gatton College of Pharmacy
Johnson City, TN
Non-Financial Interests: One Care of Southwest Virginia, Virginia Board of Pharmacy, Virginia Opioid Abatement Authority,
Virginia Department of Health Professions Board, Virginia Medicaid Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee
Troy Moore, PharmD, MS, BCPP
Erika Titus-Lay, PharmD, BCPP, BCPS
California Northstate University College of Pharmacy
Elk Grove, CA
Educational Grants, Research Grants or Contracts: Sponsor, ASHP Pharmacy Leadership Scholars Research Grant
Audrey Abelleira, PharmD, BCPP, BCPS
David Dadiomov, PharmD, BCPP
James J. Gasper, PharmD, BCPP
Cindy A. Gutierrez, PharmD, MS, BCPP
Dara L. Johnson, PharmD, BCPP, BCACP
Benjamin Miskle, PharmD
Marnie Noel, PharmD, BCPP
All relevant relationships have been mitigated.
All relevant relationships have been mitigated.
Off-Label Use: This educational activity may contain discussion of published and/or investigational uses of agents that are not indicated by the FDA (see faculty information and disclosures). The opinions expressed in the educational activity do not necessarily represent the views of AAPP and any educational partners. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.
Disclaimer: Participants have an implied responsibility to use the newly acquired information to enhance patient outcomes and their own professional development. Any procedures, medications, or other courses of diagnosis or treatment discussed or suggested in this activity should not be used by clinicians without evaluation of their patient’s conditions and possible contraindications on dangers in use, review of any applicable manufacturer’s product information, and comparison with recommendations of other authorities. Please refer to the official prescribing information for each product for discussion of approved indications, contraindications, and warnings.
Presentation-Specific Disclosure: My presentation will include discussion of off-label, experimental, and /or investigational use of drugs or devices: Emtricitabine/Tenofovir Alafenamide; Cabotegravir injection (both off-label for PrEP in PWID)
It is the policy of AAPP to ensure independence, balance, objectivity, scientific rigor, and integrity in continuing education activities. Those involved in the development of this continuing education activity have made all reasonable efforts to ensure that information contained herein is accurate in accordance with the latest available scientific knowledge at the time of accreditation of this continuing education activity. Information regarding drugs (e.g., their administration, dosages, contraindications, adverse reactions, interactions, special warnings, and precautions) and drug delivery systems is subject to change, however, and the reader is advised to check the manufacturer’s package insert for information concerning recommended dosage and potential problems or cautions prior to dispensing or administering the drug or using the drug delivery systems.
Fair balance is achieved through ongoing and thorough review of all materials produced by faculty, and all educational and advertising materials produced by supporting organizations, prior to educational offerings. Approval of credit for this continuing education activity does not imply endorsement by AAPP for any product or manufacturer identified.