Psychiatric pharmacists have enaged in team-based care for 40+ years, and the research is overwhelmingly positive about their contribution to access, outcomes and cost. Given the diverse practice models in use today, you can find results of pharmacist contributions to most types of mental health practice settings. Below are some papers developed recently by AAPP committees and task forces that illustrate the broad impact that psychiatric pharmacists are having across the health care system.
This is a description for public health professionals of roles related to SDOH. Pharmacists play a key role in identifying and mitigating SDOH for patients with psychiatric disorders. Using Healthy People 2030 as a framework, the impact of community pharmacists, clinical pharmacists, and psychiatric pharmacists can be detected across a spectrum of key SDOHs. An especially useful table is the crosswalk between various SDOHs and indication, effectiveness, safety, and adherence. Continue reading.
This is a description for pharmacists of the vision for the specialty. AAPP envisions growth and expansion of the BCPP role in many areas including coordinating psychiatric transitions of care and telehealth services, managing long-acting injectable medication clinics, providing pharmacogenomic consultation, conducting clozapine and lithium monitoring, managing medications for substance use disorders, leading medication groups, CNS drug development, research, and provider education. The paper also includes recommendations to prepare the workforce. Continue reading.
This is a description for non-pharmacists of general roles. BCPPs currently assist in expanding care access, improving medication-related outcomes, and reducing health care costs by working collaboratively with physicians and other health care providers. However, they are often underutilized, which results in lost opportunities to better address the needs of persons with psychiatric or substance use disorders and to meet these needs in a timely manner. Five key areas in which BCPPs provide evidence-based care and could be more extensively used as a collaborative solution are: opioid use disorder, antipsychotic use among children, long-acting injectable antipsychotics, clozapine use, and transitions of care and care coordination. Continue reading.
Based on common traits of various effective medication management strategies, this article develops a framework for psychotropic stewardship programs (PSPs). The ultimate goal is that every patient with a psychiatric disorder, including substance use disorders, will have their medication therapy reviewed, optimized, and managed by a psychiatric pharmacist as part of a psychotropic stewardship team. In short, intentional efforts to have a Board Certified Psychiatric Pharmacist (BCPP) provide Comprehensive Medication Management (CMM) services to patients with psychiatric disorders will improve access, outcomes, and cost. Continue reading.
A 2019 survey identified significant variability of practice characteristics among outpatient psychiatric pharmacists (OPPs). No published model established which attributes constitute best practice for OPPs. By developing a consensus for best practice model attributes, outpatient psychiatric pharmacists can work toward consistent, effective patient care. This project ultimately developed 28 attribute statements for a best practice model for those outpatient psychiatric pharmacists providing direct patient care. Continue reading.
Psychiatric pharmacists experience a significant variability in their prescriptive authority. Their demographics reflect changes in residency accreditation and increased numbers of psychiatric residencies within VA facilities. Those with prescriptive authority reported treating psychiatric and medical conditions, creating added value. Expansion of psychiatric pharmacist services, including prescriptive authority, should be considered as a viable addition to the care provided to patients with mental illness, especially in areas where there is a shortage of such services. Continue reading.
The current practice of psychiatric pharmacy is incredibly varied in terms of practice setting, activities performed, and services provided. This study is notable for being the first comprehensive survey of current psychiatric pharmacy practice in the United States. It illuminates the wide variety of practice settings that currently employ psychiatric pharmacists to improve access, outcomes, and cost. Continue reading.
In 2020, AAPP conducted a literature review to update the list of key studies from the 2015 paper. The number of projects illustrates the expansion of psychiatric pharmacy practice and research since the previous paper was published. This paper provides summaries of 64 additional studies 1/1/2014-6/1/2019, as well as additional analysis of the outcomes. Continue reading.
In 2015, AAPP published this major paper that reviews the literature on psychiatric pharmacists' value up to 2014. Including summaries of 28 high-quality studies, it illustrates the value of psychiatric pharmacists in many different settings. This paper serves as a primer on psychiatric pharmacists by also reviewing the growing need for psychiatric pharmacists, the unique training and experience of the psychiatric pharmacist, and comprehensive medication management. Continue reading.