Helpful Insights forPatients and Caregivers

Download PDF

Self-rated scales are types of surveys that can be used to screen for mental illness. The scales are not meant to be used to diagnose mental illness. They are meant to help identify people who need further assessment.


  1. Constantini L, Pasquarrella C, Odone A, et al. Screening for depression in primary care with Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9): a systematic review. J Affect Disord. 2021 Jan 15;279:473-83.
  2. Sapra A, Bhandari P, Sharma S, Chanpura T, Lopp L. Using Generalized Anxiety Disorder-2 (GAD-2) and GAD-7 in a Primary Care Setting. Cureus. 2020;12(5):e8224. DOI: 10.7759/cureus.8224. PubMed PMID: 32582485; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7306644.
  3. Sasdelli A, Lia L, Luciano CC, Nespeca C, Berardi D, Menchetti M. Screening for Bipolar Disorder Symptoms in Depressed Primary Care Attenders: Comparison between Mood Disorder Questionnaire and Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32). Psychiatry J. 2013;2013:548349. DOI: 10.1155/2013/548349. PubMed PMID: 24236281; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3820078.
  4. Mental illness. National Institute of Mental Health. Accessed 2022 Sep 12.
  5. Kroenke K, Spitzer RL, Williams JBW. The PHQ-9. J Gen Intern Med. 2001;16(9):606- 613. DOI: 10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009606.x.
  6. Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JBW, Löwe B. A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: the GAD-7. Arch Intern Med. 2006;166(10):1092-7. DOI: 10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092. PubMed PMID: 16717171.
  7. Hirschfeld RM, Williams JB, Spitzer RL, Calabrese JR, Flynn L, Keck PE, et al. Development and validation of a screening instrument for bipolar spectrum disorder: the Mood Disorder Questionnaire. AJP. 2000;157(11):1873-5. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.157.11.1873. PubMed PMID: 11058490.