Helpful Insights forPatients and Caregivers

Download PDF

All antipsychotic drugs, first generation and second generation, block a chemical in the brain called dopamine. Blocking dopamine raises the chance of drug-induced movement side effects.


  1. Hasan A, Faalkai P, Wobrock T, et al. World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of schizophrenia, part 2: update on the long term treatment of schizophrenia and management of antipsychotic-induced side effects. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Feb;14(1):2-44.
  2. Crespo-Facorro B, Arrez-Iglesias R, Mata I, et al. Relapse prevention and remission attainment in first- episode non-affective psychosis. A randomized, controlled 1-year follow-up comparison of haloperidol, risperidone, and olanzapine. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45(6):763-9.
  3. Moore TA, Buchanan RW. The Texas Medication Algorithm Project Antipsychotic Algorithm for Schizophrenia. J Clin Psychol. 2007;68(11):1751–62.
  4. Lewis K. Dystonic reactions [Internet]. StatPearls [Internet]. U.S. National Library of Medicine; 2021 [cited 2021Nov1]. Available from:
  5. Dadiomov D. What you need to know about tardive dyskinesia (TD) [Internet]. AAPP. 2019 [cited 2021Nov1]. Available from:
  6. Albanese A, Bhatia K, Bressman SB, et al. Phenomenology and classification of dystonia: a consensus update. Mov Disord. 2013 Jun 14; 28(7):863-73.
  7. Jeste DV, Wyatt RJ. Changing epidemiology of tardive dyskinesia: an overview. Am J Psychiatry. 1981;138(3):297-309. DOI: 10.1176/ajp.138.3.297. PubMed PMID: 6110344.
  8. Fernandez HH, Friedman JH. Classification and treatment of tardive syndromes. Neurologist. 2003;9(1):16-27. DOI: 10.1097/01.nrl.0000038585.58012.97. PubMed PMID: 12801428.
  9. Tarsy D, Baldessarini RJ. Epidemiology of tardive dyskinesia: is risk declining with modern antipsychotics?. Mov Disord. 2006;21(5):589-98. DOI: 10.1002/mds.20823. PubMed PMID: 16532448.