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References are located at the bottom of this page.


  1. ASHP. Guidance document for the ASHP accreditation standard for postgraduate year one (PGY1) pharmacy residency programs. Updated March 2021. Accessed February 3, 2023.
  2. Office of the Surgeon General. Addressing health worker burnout: the U.S. Surgeon General’s advisory on building a thriving health workforce. 2022. Accessed February 3, 2023.
  3. Bethishou, L. “Chapter 4: Engagement and Empowerment” In: Alvarez, NA. Bypass Pharmacy Burnout: Changing Your Trajectory to Enhance Your Experience. 2021. ISBN 1582123527.
  4. Harter JK, Schmidt FL, Hayes TL. Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis. J Appl Psychol. 2002; 87(2): 268-279.
  5. Schaufeli WB, Taris TW, van Rhenen W. Workaholism, burnout, and work engagement: Three of a kind or three different kinds of employee well-being? Appl Psychol-Int Rev. 2008; 57(2): 173-203.