Numerous pharmacologic regimens have been trialed for management of substance abuse, often with concomitant behavioral interventions.

Essential Questions and References

What is the evidence for combination of pharmacotherapy and behavioral interventions for managing symptoms of alcohol dependence?

  1. Anton RF, O’Malley SS, Ciraulo DA, et al. Combined pharmacotherapies and behavioral interventions for alcohol dependence. The COMBINE study: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2006;295(17):2003-17. [PubMed]

What treatment options are available for treatment of opioid dependence?

  1. Pinto H, Maskrey V, Swift L, et al. The SUMMIT trial: a field comparison of buprenorphine versus methadone maintenance treatment. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2010;39(4)340-352. [PubMed]
  2. Lee JD, Nunes Jr EV, Novo P, et al. Comparative effectiveness of extended-release naltrexone versus buprenorphine-naloxone for opioid relapse prevention (X:BOT): a multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2018;391(10118):309-318. [PubMed]

What treatment options are there for pregnant people with opioid dependence?

  1. Jones HE, Kaltenbach K, Heil SH, et al. Neonatal abstinence syndrome after methadone or buprenorphine exposure. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(24):2320-31. [PubMed]

What treatment options are available for treatment of nicotine use disorder?

  1. Cahill K, Stevens S, Perera R, Lancaster T. Pharmacological Interventions for smoking cessation: an overview and network meta-analysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;5:CD009329. [Weblink]

What is the evidence for use of varenicline in patients with psychiatric disorders?

  1. Anthenelli RM, Benowitz NL, West R, et al. Neuropsychiatric safety and efficacy of varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine patch in smokers with and without psychiatric disorders (EAGLES): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lancet. 2016;10037(387):2507-20. [PubMed]

Have e-cigarettes been compared to NRT for smoking cessation?

  1. Hajek P, Phillips-Waller A, Przulj D, et al. A Randomized Trial of E-Cigarettes versus Nicotine-Replacement Therapy. N Engl J Med. 2019;380(7):629-37. [PubMed]
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